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The Ganges  is a river in the north of India. Its length varies according to the sources of 2500 to 3000 km, its basin covers 907,000 km 2 Delta is common with the Brahmaputra.

The Ganges is the holiest of the seven sacred rivers of India.


The course of the Ganges begins at Devprayag (State of Uttarakhand), at the confluence of Bhagirathi (which originates in the glacier Gangotri in the Himalayas) and the Alaknanda (which descends from the Nanda Devi).

It then passes through Haridwar, located 300 m above sea level, and flows through the Indo-Gangetic Plain, losing fairly level while collecting a number of tributaries of Yamuna (1300 km), the ghaghra (1080 km) in Chapra, the Gandak (700 km) in Hajipur, the Ramganga (640 km) shortly before Allahabad, the sone (784 km) to Patna, the Koshi (700 km) near Bhagalpur, the Gumti or Gomati (675 km ) near Varanasi, the Damodar (541 km) south of Kolkata.

The Ganges flows into the Bay of Bengal, forming an important delta called Sundarbans, where it mingles with the Brahmaputra. An Indian branch of this delta forms the Hooghly that runs through Kolkata. Another major branch flowing to Bangladesh is called Padma before joining the Brahmaputra to form the Meghna.


Average monthly flow (m 3 / s)
Hydrological Station: Farakka elevation: 19 m catchment area: 833,000 km≤ 1
(data calculated over the period 1949-1973)

The minimum flow rate is 1041 m 3 ⋅s -1, and its maximum is 60 000 m 3 ⋅s -1.

Religious significance
The Ganges is considered holy by Hindus: immersion in the Ganges washes the believer from sin and dispersal of ash in the river can bring a better future life and even help achieve earlier moksha or deliverance, c that is to say the output of the phenomenal world. For Hindus, the Ganges water has the virtue of purifying the body of humans and to release the soul of the deceased.]

The Ganges is seen as the ultimate truth, the ultimate reality in the spiritual sense. It is Shiva who holds the source of the Ganges in his hair, called jata-mukuta: Shiva is also called Gangadhara.

The story goes that it was a king who seek prosperity for the land, implored the goddess Akash Ganga. The Bhagiratha King was fulfilled but believed that the goddess Ganga flows overwhelm the earth, so she put them in the headdress of a god Shiva. The latter then released the river of her hair 2.

Shiva statue on the banks of the Ganges in Haridwar
When a pilgrim bathes in the Ganges, is the symbol of the search for union with the ultimate truth. The Ganges River is taken as bringing spiritual wisdom 3.

Hindu devotees make pilgrimages to bathe in its waters and practice the meditation on its shores. Several Hindu holy sites are located along the banks of the Ganges, such as Haridwar and Varanasi.

The Yamuna, almost as an important and sacred river is a tributary of the Ganges in which she throws at Allahabad. Every twelve years stands at the confluence of two rivers - where also find the confluence with the Sarasvati, the mystical and invisible river - the Kumbhamela a religious gathering that brings together tens of millions of people.

Ecosystem and pollution
Despite pollution already stressed by the American writer Mark Twain during his visit in the city of Varanasi in the last century, the Ganges is a rich and unique ecosystem that contains two dolphin species, Gangetic dolphin or Platanista gangetica and the Irrawaddy dolphin or Orcaella brevirostris and a shark of freshwater, the Glyphis gangeticus.

The river has two major dams. The first near Haridwar diverts much of the Himalayan melt water into the upper channel of the Ganges, built by the British in 1854 to irrigate the surrounding land. This diversion of water is the main cause of the deterioration of the navigability of the river. Another dam is located near Farakka, near the river entry point to Bangladesh and diverting some of the water to the Hooghly supplying the western part of the delta of Bengal and the city of Kolkata. This dam is a source of conflict between India and Bangladesh since its construction in 1975.

It is estimated that every day the Ganges receives the remains of some 475 human corpses as well as 1800 tons of wood used for cremations, plus the 10,000 carcasses of animals that are abandoned there, which is a major cause pollution. Various methods have been proposed to help its pollution, such as sewage treatment plants installation and connection to hundreds of kilometers of sewers, construction of thousands of public toilets and electric crematoria - like those of Varanasi - but they are hardly used by the poor. It was also made ​​to releases of thousands of turtles scavengers that they can devour insufficiently burned corpses, but the reptiles were captured and consumed by the poor residents.

In 1985, the Ganges was proclaimed "national heritage" and a Central Authority of the Ganges founded. The first analyzes that were conducted the following year in a tributary pours where the sewers of Varanasi and which empties itself into the river downstream of the city revealed a fecal coliform levels of 1.5 million units per deciliter, the authorized maximum is 500 units.

The capital New Delhi pours daily into the Yamuna 250,000 meters cubic of sewage and 20,000 meters cubic of industrial waste water that will eventually flow into the Ganges. The city had yet been given from 1937 of a first treatment plant.

The Ganges has however self-purification capacity (or self-remediation) substantial, that is to say, by the action of bacteria and the transfer of oxygen from the atmosphere by the surface of the river, a Much of the organic contamination can be removed within a few kilometers. This self-treatment does not mean that its quality is highly degraded by these releases.

According Maxisciences, the Ganges is the most polluted river in the world 4

The course of the Ganges.

Fauna and flora

The ecosystem of the delta of the Ganges and its watershed have been identified by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) as one of the 426 ecoregions of fresh water on the planet.

Some cultural aspects

In the village of Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu, is the largest bas-relief in the world, often seen as an illustration of the descent of the Ganges.

In the Palace of Jaipur, one can see two huge urns on display, the largest in the world, made ​​with 243 kg of silver each and which were used to Maharaja Madho Singh II to carry more than 30,000 liters of water in the Ganges his travel in 1902 in the UK.

In 1950, Jean Renoir sign her first film in color, The River, facing the Ganges, which won the International Award of criticism at the Venice festival in 1951.

After his death in 2001, the ashes of George Harrison were dumped into the Ganges, in an intimate ceremony at Hindu customs.

Soleil levant sur le Gange

Bateaux sur le Gange

Barques sur le Gange

Temples sur les rives du Gange

Bateau rouge sur le Gange

Tourisme sur le Gange

Ablutions dans le Gange

Barques sur le Gange

Ces photos ne sont pas libre de droits.

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